Interactive Media Arts Capstone Bibliography


  • ZUtA by ZUtA Labs
    • Official:
    • Kickstarter:
    • ZUtA is a pocket robotic printer that works with mobile devices and print on the go and this is the very product that first inspired me making a robot artist. Its portability is already appealing, but what really strikes me is its ability to print on any size of paper. This device is not constrained by axes, neither should a robot artist, or any artist, be. Because of this, unlike some other robot artists that are either based on a robotic arm or axes, I decided to make a robot artist that draws/paints as it moves around on any surface with any size.
    • robot, printer, mobile
    • product

  • Robot Navigation by Lauro Ojeda
    • This site documents the making of a drawing robot built with LEGO EV3 and it also covers the implementation of the position estimation techniques, such as Gyroscope Enhanced Odometry. The way it works is very close to what I want to achieve with my own robot, so I believe there will be a lot that I could learn or even borrow from this project, although the final result would definitely be a lot different, because there are many aspects/possibilities that I want to explore with. One issue is that the code is written in C/C++ for LEGO EV3, which may take time for me port to either Raspberry Pi or Arduino, which are the platforms I am most likely going to use.
    • navigation, robot, drawing, lego
    • docs
  • Low-Cost, Arduino-Compatible Drawing Robot by MakersBox
    • This robot is found on Instructables, which comes with very detailed instructions on how to build one. Even better, this robot is built with Arduino, so it should be a very good starting point for me, potentially as a minimum viable product. It also includes the design of the 3D printed parts, which provides some good references for me as I design my own parts. In short, I think this project can help me get started with a working example, which would save me a lot of time.
    • arduino, robot, drawing
    • open source
  • PRO (Painting Robots Orchestra) by Leonel Moura
    • PRO is a series of robots that detect sound and “translate” musical into the visual. These robots are more abstract than the other, which is one of the possibilities that my robot would go. PRO and many other robots built by Moura serve as inspirations for me if I eventually decide that my robot would go for the abstract direction. Apart from music or sound, I’m also considering adding many other sensors as sensations to the robot so that the robot would paint/draw based on the data from those sensors, such as light sensor, color sensor, thermometer, etc.
    • painting, robot, abstract
    • docs
  • Cloud Painter by Pindar Van Arman
    • Official:
    • Kickstarter:
    • Arman and his children have been working on this robot for more than ten years and they started with a machine that drew simple lines to their most recent robot that utilizes machine learning and artificial intelligence in order to learn and paint in different styles. Some of the paintings are done not just by the robot, but with human interactions. This robot is especially good at portraits and some of the concepts and techniques of this robot may be incorporated in my robot.
    • robot, artificial intelligence, artist, painting
    • docs
  • Robot Artist by NTU (National Taiwan University)
    • A 7-DoF robot arm that does paintings based on reference images. It even mixes colors itself and does underpainting as initial layer of paint. This project is the winner of 2016 Robot Art competition held by Although, at the beginning, my robot would primarily focuses on drawings, this project can be a very good reference if I do want my robot to extend its skills to paintings as well. There are some issues in my mind if my robot decides to paint, one of the most obvious being the robot stepping on its own painting and messing it up, but those issues might be embraced and become part of the robot’s style.
    • robot, artist. painting
    • docs
  • AxiDraw by Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories
    • Official:
    • Shop:
    • AxiDraw is a personal writing and drawing machine, its advantage is its accuracy, but its accuracy also made itself more like a printer. I know it’s not a printer in a sense that it holds a pen and writes/draws, but it’s made to produce “works” that are given, much like a printer, whereas I want my robot to observe on its own with cameras and sensors, then make decisions on its own rather than just doing what it’s told to do.
    • writing, drawing, machine
    • product
  • RobotArt by
    • This is a site for a robot art competition that has been held in 2016. There are plenty of art robots and their artworks in the archives that I can study and get inspirations from. I may even sign up for this competition!
    • robot, art, competition
    • community


  1. (½) Foundation and Development of Robotic Art <>
    • This art journal defines the key terms regarding robotic art and intends to “define a framework for the understanding and analysis of robotic art”. The author also discusses the current development of robotic arts by discussing “three pivotal artworks from 1960s”. I can use this journal as a reference of what robotic art was 20 years ago as well as the author’s predictions to the three directions in order to compare them with what robotic art is now to illustrate the development of robotic art.
    • robotic, art, development
    • long journal
  2. (½) Towards a Chronology of Robotic Art <>
    • As the title suggests, this article is a chronology of robotic art from 1955 to 1996. This is a good collection of existing robotic art so as to help me understand what robotic art is, or at least what robotic art is from the author’s perspective. Those works can even provide inspirations for my robot project.
    • robotic, art, chronology
    • long journal
  3. (½) Evoking Agency: Attention Model and Behavior Control in a Robotic Art Installation <>
    • This article explains the implementation of a attention model and its behavior control in detail. It discusses both the hardware and software of the Articulated Head, which is a real life example of a robotic art installation. This article gives me a more specific insight of robotic art that would help me understand how robotics is incorporated in art in the form of an installation.
    • robotic, art, installation
    • long journal
  4. (½) The Concept of Intention in Art Criticism <>
    • This journal discusses what the concept of intention is as in art criticism and how standards are found. This is helpful when I discuss intentions and different interpretations of other people’s robotic artworks in my paper so as to be more appropriate and accurate. This also helps me to understand how robotic art, or even art in general, is evaluated from a critic’s point of view.
    • The author’s intention is neither an absolute standard nor irrelevant at all. The readers are not free to interpret works in any way, but the interpretations also do not have to conform the author’s intention. In most cases, author’s intention and reader’s interpretations agree with each other, with minor differences. There’s almost no point to interpret if the author doesn’t have any intention at all, but from author’s other works and context, we can conclude the intention without asking the author, and reader’s with good knowledge of the author would interpret the author’s work closer to the author’s intention, which is what the public agreed to be “correct” or “right”.
    • art, intention
    • long journal
  5. (1) A robotic system for interpreting images into painted artwork <>
    • This article explains in detail “a robotic system for interpreting images into painted work”. This provides both references for my robot project and an example of robotic art system to be evaluated. I would be able to learn what this robotic system can do and how it works in depth so as to be analyzed as part of my research.
    • robotic, art
    • scholarly work
  6. (1) Art and Intention: A Philosophical Study <>
    • This book discusses the definition of intentions and how intentions help the creation of art. It also talks about the differences between intentions and interpretations. This book would help me better understand what intentions are in the process of creating art and how to make art with intention. It also helps me to better understand the intentions of artists of robotic art as well as how we can interoperate their works. It would also deepen my understanding of the relationship between intention and art as well as the ends and the means in art making.
    • art, intention
    • book
  7. (1) New Media Art <>
    • This book talks about how art has become in “the age of digital distribution”, how computer and internet has shaped the new art, and how art can be expressed in the new media. This book can help me understand the new art with the influences of the new media, its advantages and disadvantages over traditional art, the pathways that new art would go to.
    • art, media
    • book
  8. (¼) Art that looks back at you <>
    • This is a TED talk about the speaker’s research on making art with robotics and artificial intelligence. The speaker demonstrates quite a few projects of him that the art looks back at its viewer. This provides some good examples of robotic art as well as inspirations for my own project.
    • art, robot
    • online publication
  9. (¼) Robot Art Raises Questions about Human Creativity <>
    • This article questions whether or not art made by machine can truly be described as creative or imaginative. It also talks about a few projects that make art with artificial intelligence.
    • robot, art, creativity, artificial intelligence
    • online publication

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